Monday, September 6, 2021

Second level: "Done" and dusted

After not attending a rated show since I got my bronze medal on Taran in 2018, 2021 has been the year of second level. Leo and I actually started showing 2nd at schooling shows last year, but I wanted to get back into the rated scene this year - and boy did we!

Our first outing was in April at a venue about 30 minutes away. Luckily, they hosted a schooling show the weekend before, so we were able to practice. Leo struggles with new places, and rated shows cause me so much anxiety, so being able to practice at a venue ahead of time is really helpful for both of us.

I really shouldn't have worried, because Leo came out ready to show off. We put in nearly flawless tests all weekend and our scores just kept getting better and better. On Saturday, 2-1 earned a 66.757, which I was beyond pleased with since it was an even better score than at the schooling show the week before. Then I went in and rode the pants off of 2-3 for a 67.619. 

Maybe the judge missed this super awkward W-C transition?

I talked to Jan Saturday after my rides and we went over the tests, and she texted me "You know, you can get a 70 at second on this horse." So that was my goal for Sunday - ride everything as big as I could, and really push the envelope. We walked out with 69.054 on 2-1 and a 69.405 on 2-3!!! We would have scored a 70 except I didn't use enough leg on the downward medium/collected canter transition so he broke. SO CLOSE! It was an incredibly successful weekend, as won all our classes, qualified for regionals, and we were champion AA both days. PONY POWER!



Our second time out was rather less successful. I put a lot of pressure on myself because we'd done so well, and because I was showing with/against friends. The brain weasels are really my own worst enemy, I swear.

We started off with a rather mediocre ride on 2-3 - I just felt stiff and he didn't feel really with me. We had a mistake on the counter-canter serpentine too, which is generally a strong movement for us. We scored a relatively poor 63.452 for a fourth place, nothing like our nearly 70s score just a few weeks before. Part of it was that I'd spent most of our time working on our freestyle, but the pressure I'd put on us didn't help. 

At lunchtime, we went to ride our freestyle... and he absolutely lost his shit when the music came on. He bolted multiple times in the warmup and threw in a few fun moves with his front feet off the ground. Other horses lost their marbles too, including a very seasoned PSG horse, so we weren't alone, but it was definitely not the warmup we wanted. In hindsight, I should have just told him it was OK and moved on, but I didn't ride him confidently enough and he really needs that from me. When we got in the arena, I not only had to deal with my poor flustered horse, but I couldn't hear the music. It was so bad the judge stopped us just after our halt, and by then Leo was such a mess he was rearing directly in front of the judge's stand. I decided that excusing ourselves was probably our best option, and the judge kindly agreed. 

0% recommend being that rider on that horse

Sunday, I came back with a plan. I borrowed a noise-cancelling bonnet, and I went to the warmup and RODE. We had a very lovely 2-3, probably one of the best ones I've ridden, but the judge didn't agree. Even my coach said our test was better than our score reflected (62.976), so ya know... some judges just don't love some horses, and that's ok. I know not to ride for those folks if I can avoid it. We had a few bobbles in our freestyle warmup reminiscent of the previous day, but I rode him through it and we put in a good show. It wasn't the test I wanted to ride, but we got it done and it was mostly to the music. We got both a freestyle qualifying score and a score toward my bronze freestyle bar (68.467), so mission accomplished there.

Mediums getting better!

Our last show was in early August, which I normally try to avoid because it's hot AF here in August, but luckily the venue had a lovely covered arena and my ride times were at 8 am. Perfect! Since we'd never been to this venue before, I took a few lessons with the resident trainer so I could let him see everything, and it really paid off. On the day of the show, he was relaxed and workmanlike, a far cry from the first time I brought him there, where he was quite looky and distracted. I keep forgetting that despite being a reasonably competent second level horse, he hasn't traveled much, and I need to do a better job of getting him out into the world.

PC Amber Greeson Photography

I had to time my warmup carefully, since I had back-to-back rides and the warmup arena was a bit deep and tiring. 2-1 was clean but I felt super stiff for all of the trot work, then I got it together for the canter work. Overall it was a nice test but I didn't feel great about it; still it was our high score for the weekend (68.514 and reserve AA score for the day). I took him back to the warmup arena and just touched on what we needed for 2-3 (TOH, simple changes), and then put in what I thought was a much better test, but it only scored a 66.429. Still, both tests were good enough for 1st place and the 2-1 score got us reserve AA champion for the day.

PC Amber Greeson Photography

Day two went similarly well - 67.432 for 2-1 and a 64.405 for 2-3, and another reserve champion. Despite the good scores, he felt stiff in his neck and body, and he wasn't really in self-carriage as I wasn't riding particularly well. Even so, we got one of the cutest comments from a judge ever: "You got every ounce out of him!" If only she knew how much is still in the tank!

On the USDF side, Leo is currently in first place for the 2nd level AA Haflinger all-breeds award, and in 9th place for USDF 2nd level AA. He's also eligible for NDPC awards, but we're still trying to get him correctly measured.

I know lots of folks don't love second level, but it's been fun and I actually really enjoy it (even if 2-3 is a damn marathon). I think this pic pretty much sums it up: All smiles! 

PC Amber Greeson Photography

Wednesday, March 10, 2021

English translation of De equo animante, by Leon Baptiste Alberti (c. 1440s)

De equo animante / Le Cheval Vivant / The living horse

by Leon Baptiste Alberti, c. 1440s

English translation by Jennifer Jobst, with French and Latin consultation by Grégoire De Beaumont. Based on the French translation by Jean-Yves Boriaud in Le Cheval Vivant.

Translator's notes

Leon Baptiste Alberti (1404-1472) is perhaps best known for his architecture, but he also penned several booklets, including De equo animante. Dedicated to Leonello d'Este of Ferrara, it was likely written in the late 1430s or 1440s when Alberti was working on a sculpture for d'Este. The booklet is not based on Alberti's personal knowledge of horses, but is rather a compilation for which Alberti "... gather[ed] together all the possible authors, famous or obscure, who wrote about the horse, and all that I found to be elegant and interesting, I transcribed in my booklet." Alberti handily lists the authors which he included, and readers who are familiar with ancient Greek and Roman texts will note similarities throughout De equo animante.

This English translation was done for personal interest and should be used with some caution, as it was translated from Jean-Yves Boriaud's French version; however the original Latin text was consulted regularly for clarification and accuracy (the French version is not included here due to copyright, but can be obtained at the link provided above). Nevertheless, the text provides insight into the body of knowledge about horses, especially training and healthcare, available during Alberti's time. Of course, since Alberti wrote this as a compilation of ancient texts rather than based on first-hand experience, whether or not the practices Alberti described were actually followed in the mid-fifteenth century would require validation from other sources.  

If you have questions or suggestions for improvements, please leave a comment or contact me directly. Please remember that this translation is copyright, and cite appropriately if used.

De equo animante


To Leonello, Prince of Ferrare,

Having returned to Ferrara to visit you and present my homage to you, illustrious prince, I find it difficult to say how much pleasure I was seized by to see your city, so beautiful, your citizens, so respectful, and to see you, a prince so distinguished and so kind. I really understood the interest of living in a State where, in peace and rest of soul [or spirit], one is subjected to the best of the fathers of the fatherland, who respects the laws and its traditions. But we'll discuss that another time.

To this pleasure was added the meeting, here, of an opportunity that was offered to me, an opportunity so pleasant for me, given my custom of exercising my intelligence: I seized it gladly, also because of my regard for you [high esteem in which I hold you]. Your fellow citizens having indeed decided to raise at great expense, in the square, in honor of your father, equestrian statues, before the rivalry which opposed the best artists, they chose me, on your order, me who relishes some pleasure to paint and carve, to arbitrate on their behalf. To examine again and again so many masterpieces done in such an extraordinary manner [1], it came to my mind the idea of ​​reflecting with more attention not only on the beauty and the lines of horses, but on their nature in general, and on their characters [attitude].

I saw how much the horses lent themselves to all the uses, public and private, of men, to the violence of wars as well as to the pageantry of peace. Should it actually be what is necessary to take from the fields the materials for the construction of shelters and dwellings or what is necessary for the maintenance of a family, or what is necessary to collect onto the battlefield of their greatness of glory and the honor of liberty [2], to accomplish all these tasks, it is of course the strength and work of these animals that men most often resort to using, to the point that, without the help of the horses, it seems impossible to me to ensure safety and dignity. Especially since it is the only animal serves and adorns [embellishes] the gods from above. Phoebus [3], with his chariot of fire [sparks from the tail of a comet], the venerable Neptune, happy to brandish his trident, like a scepter, on the Ocean, and the other gods, all or almost all, seem to have the brilliance that is suits their majesty, and what device best suits their tasks, if the horses were not first harnessed to their chariots?

This [the horse] is an animal of elegant appearance, where one is astonished to see so much physical vigor and strength of soul [character] combined with such an incredible gentleness, and a spirit that is also placid and docile dwells in such a strong breast [4]. He lets himself be led by a thin strap, he who knows how to crush the chest of iron [i.e. a cuirass]] of the furious enemy. The horse has also learned to advance in the battle, with the whole squadron [of cavalry], at a walk all together [as a group] [so that] they sound like the harmony of vocals [5], to tolerate only a single master to ride him and to him [allow] on the ground, to allow him to return, triumphant conqueror, to his family. It would be too long to enumerate all the services rendered to their princes by horses, services which earned them the offer, by the divine Augustus, the honor which deserves a tomb, by the citizens of Agrigento, a magnificent pyramid, by the dictator Cesar, a statue near the temple of Venus and, by Alexander of Macedonia [Alexander the Great], the largest of the funeral processions with, in the guise of a tomb and epitaph, the foundation of a city of the same name [6].

These examples and many others of the same kind have come to my mind, and as the matter seemed to me to deserve to test my intelligence, when I realized how pleased you were reading my text and I was myself unoccupied, I decided to spend the time of my stay with you to practice according to my habit, to write about the subject. I applied myself to gather together all the possible authors, famous or obscure, who wrote about the horse, and all that I found to be elegant and interesting, I transcribed in my booklet. These authors, at least those who came into my hands, were either, for the Greeks, Xenophon, Absyrtus, Chiron, Hippocrates and Pelagonius and, for the Latins, Cato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny, Columella, Vegece, Palladius, the Calabrian, Crescenzio, Albert, Abbas and many others, from Gaul or Etruria, obscure but useful and erudite. I even took what the best doctors [veterinarians] what seemed to me to be about the subject.

As for my readers, I would like them to think that I did not write for workers or herdsmen, but for a prince, and at the same time a great scholar, and that in writing on this subject, I was without a doubt more plain than the ignorant masses might wish. I would like then, Prince, that when you are reading [my work] you persuade yourself that I have never researched as much, through all the work of my watchfulness [?], what of thee [?] every day, whatever the matter, more agreeable. But let's come to the subject itself.

To train a horse for war

Once educated in these behaviors, it [the horse] must be trained in the other noble arts, to endure fatigue for the honor and glory of the country, to save the citizens, to defeat the enemy and to all the other glorious practices of the same kind.

The points to be paid special attention to are the following: that he should lend himself to obedience and discretion to the formation of the line of battle, that he should remain calm in the midst of danger, that he should be quick to launch himself, to know how to slide [avoid, dodge] quickly, to be firm and decisive during the attack, agile for jumping, able to swim for a long time, quick and fierce in the fight, but without excesses, that he seems happy and sensitive to honors in the parade of triumph, and be cheerful and in a good mood.

Perhaps the first thing that needs to be addressed is what the Sarmatians do, because they raise the horses so that they can withstand deprivation of food and just drink.

To achieve the greater part of these results, we have two excellent instruments: the bit, which, if the horse comes to run inconsiderately and foolishly on the enemy if he does it without the signal being given or in one an inappropriate place, or if, by timidity, out of fear, he flees at random and abandons his post, [the bit] allows him [the horse] to be kept under his [the rider’s] authority; at the same time, we have invented spurs by means of which, if he is lazy and apathetic, one can reverse it and push him to duty.

The horse must therefore be trained that the hand and the heel of the rider, and in such a way that, if it [the horse] is in a difficult mood, the first cue [push] should be [made with] bare heel [i.e. no spur] and a light rod and then apply these stimulants.

If he [the horse] begins to wander in this or that direction, against orders, he [the rider] must, at each step, by acting with the hand on the reins, with moderation and by degrees, chastise the mouth with the bit.

But as soon as he has obeyed, it is necessary to stop the action of this stimulant [i.e. using the bit], so that the restive [horse] understands that it is because of this forbidden movement that he has been thus mishandled by the bit. 

If he begins to take the bit by the teeth, perhaps by stubbornness, it is necessary to remove the four teeth of the lower jaw which fall first and are vulgarly called <cascaliones>. 

It also contributes to learning discipline if one gives him for companions horses of age [older horses], at their example which he will forget by practicing, day after day, his repugnance and will get used to imitating the virtue of the horses with merits [i.e. well-schooled horses].

With them, he will learn to follow, to precede, to go in the middle, so to speak, of the phalanx [squadron], to remain sometimes motionless, and sometimes to embark on steep and rugged terrain, and finally to run [away, i.e. retreat] for a long time.

Some prescribe to place in his path repulsive and ugly silhouettes of human busts and, for him to recognize what it is, to lead him near and around them, to stop nearby and to sometimes tie [him to it] with his lead [rope].

And also throw bales [bundles] of chaff [straw] in his path, to get him used to jumping high and without danger.

At last, without striking him, he [the rider] strives to accustom him [the horse] to disdain [scorn] all fears without objection, like that of loud noises [the din] or images.

But, using occasionally these practices, we must focus, especially, to watch [guard] the health of the horse, and also avoid that he is not impregnated [become filled/taught] with bad habits or imbued with a sort of insolence [become insolent]. 

Be careful, too, that he [the horse] does not have the occasion to abuse his liberty. 

This is what occurs, affirms our authors, if we eternally keep the habit of running or of jumping [or] we go to the same place or if we for that reason, we must one day do a modest race, another a little longer, going up, coming down, by going more often, at one time, from one side, to another, to the other, and being very careful, especially, that, in this fierceness, he does not get more insolent about the situation, [or end up] feeling victorious and triumphant [against his rider] .

It is also necessary, in this case, that the instructor masters his own anger, so that the horse, [who is] not much designed for hesitation, can understand well, through his fear, what are the things to dread [be afraid of]. 

And it must also be ensured that the hardness of the rider's commands does not add an additional discomfort to the terror so created [i.e., the terror created by a battle].

And not only we have to watch [make sure] again and again that the young colt appears to be perfectly and excellently instructed on what he will have to use, but you must mostly [above all] pay attention to the work itself, [which can be] distressing and difficult, that you [the rider] make him [the horse] accomplish [the work] with the correction and courage that is permitted by his age. 

Which is only possible if we could keep it [the horse] in good health.

Causes the most frequent of the bad health in horses

[Things that] Are mentioned as bad for health : idleness, filth, satiety and, conversely, exhaustion, hunger and perhaps the excess of comfort, are harmful to health, because it is obvious that serious and numberless diseases result from them.

Hunger causes indeed a conflagration of the spirits and a disappearance of the forces; from the weakness, the collapse of the virtues, and the sadness of the mind, also blindness; As the members, emaciated and impoverished, do not assimilate enough of an insufficiently digested nutrients, a boiling persists in the stomach, a burning blood rises in the veins, and a corrosive mood is apparent in the skin; itching, erythema and repulsive ailments of the same kind.

Fatigue causes dissolution of the moods, induration and tendon stains, and hardening of the limbs.

Idleness, the excess of food, and satiety cause much more harm.

Thromboses and almost all types of abscess come from excessive concentration of blood in the veins and excessive swelling of the vessels, due to the action of a chyme that bubbles and shakes at the same time inside the viscera.

By a sort of contagion, filth corrupts the purity and the integrity of the humors.

The fetid steam of muck in the stable, because it excites the humors by its heat, that its fineness allows it to penetrate everywhere, it softens what it gets wet, is more than anything, a true scourge for the legs and feet of horses.

This is especially true when the steam that impregnates a horse from a warm place in the open condenses and hardens cold.

And if there is a lot of rain, our authors say that horses are taken by itchiness [restlessness?].

From all this comes a very large number of diseases.

Let us not omit to say here that we understand then that to remain inactive for a long time, especially in a gloomy stable, every horse becomes absolutely lazy, and, in front of all the sounds, even tiny, and all the shapes that we put under his eyes without him expecting it [when he does not expect it], [he will be] fearful, timid and paralyzed.

Finally, naturalists assert that with moderate and suitable physical exercises, the strength increases and consolidates and that the horse is in shape at any age and keeps his good health. 

It is therefore of the greatest interest to determine the time, place, intensity and mode of these exercises. 

The proper moment, the healthiest moment, to put oneself to these exercises, is neither [during] the great heat nor the heart of winter, nor the dark night, but the morning, at the first dawn, when a pleasant and light breeze blows, and in the evening, until sunset, before dusk. 

As for places, they must be adapted to the type of exercise and the age of the horse who is doing it. 

Any land is not suitable for every horse, but some to the young and tender foals, others to adolescent foals who are more vigorous.

It will indeed be useful to manage to bring the young horses with hoofs still tender to taste the fruits of the exercise. 

To make this more convenient, here is what is prescribed. 

We must show the foal his mother, like a boundary, in front of him, at a moderate distance, on a little meadow, moist and green, and separate his mother a little, as if for a flight, but with a moderate walk, her child who follows her, then push him, stimulating him, if necessary, with a light rod, to play at the run, with foals of his age, who will first arrive at a nice fountain. [???]

Subsequently, according to their age, it is necessary to bring these foals to bear more significant strain and harden them little by little, by the exercise, but without going to the exhaustion or the last sweat. 

When one is dealing with an animal with a proud heart and noble bearing, it is necessary, by pleasure and example, by proposing to him an honor to win, to practically put fire in his veins and, keeping this principle at every moment of his education, thus accustoming him every day more to the exercise, by minute additions.

It is also necessary to choose places and times which offer no danger for the horses when exercising, and are not unhealthy when, at the end of this exercise, they [the horses] are tired and sweaty. 

Wind are also harmful for horses heated by exercise; harmful also the icy shadow of the night, and harmful especially the rays of the moon. 

For the exercise, it is therefore necessary to lead the horse not too far from home, nor too far from a place of rest. 

When he has accomplished this task, he must not be left in the shade of a cold night, nor in a strong north wind, nor should he take risks when he is tired nor add to fatigue the weight of extra work.

Let us add here that, according to these authors, the horses that we want to stand out particularly for racing, it is necessary to castrate them so that, thus made colder, they do not warm up when their nerves animate them with a lively movement. [???]

As for those whom they wish to be more pugnacious and more fierce in the face of enemies who pursue or confront them, every autumn, at the moment when their veins are most filled with seminal fluid, they must be allowed one mating and no more. 

But in either case, one must take into consideration their age, their strength, and finally their natural physical dispositions in the activity for which it is intended. 

Do not forget to say that, according to them [the ancients], they [the horses] should not be brought to exercise, in the career [arena or carriera] or on the race track, before they have deposited what weighs down their belly [i.e. defecated], and do not allow them to graze or drink, after exercise, if they have not urinated. 

For fat and overweight horses, sudden exercise, especially if they are not used to it, is, according to their [the ancient’s] advice, harmful. 

So they prescribe, at the beginning of spring, at a time when, thanks to the growth of new grasses, they renew and purify their blood, when they have eaten their fill for ten days, to cut off their main vein [bleed them from the main vein], close to the belly, because they will have an excess of blood.

And likewise [bleed them] in the summer, to prevent the blood from becoming sludge from the heat, and turning itself into poisonous abscesses. 

And the same way in autumn, to avoid having them succumb to the charm of pastures and new and juicy grains, they do not overfill themselves, and that their too swollen veins do not put them in danger, it is necessary to bleed them from this vein. 

They give, on this question, a general prescription: do not cut vein on a horse that is tired and thin [skinny]. 

They add that the amount of blood in the geldings should not be thoughtlessly reduced. 

After the phlebotomy, they [the ancients] affirm that it is necessary for [the horse] to refrain from eating or drinking for a large amount of hours. They likewise prescribe not to allow the horses to become cold, or [keep them] in a place exposed to wind, or near water. And this is enough for this exercise.

Our authors advise to pay special attention that filth does not cause them any damage. 

Here is how to welcome them when they come back from the school [carriera] and the racecourse. 

They must first be covered with blankets and walked on a small course, at a slow pace, until they have refreshed themselves in their veins. 

After that, if they want, let them lie down freely on their straw and roll around a bit. 

Then, with scraper or brush, it is necessary to totally remove the filth on the back, the belly and the flanks. 

Some people say that when they sweat, they must be completely coated with oil. 

After that, it is necessary, with handfuls of hemp [straw], to rub particularly, and in full [completely], the head and the legs, but this chafing should be neither too sharp nor too strong, nor too frequent or too painful, [especially] on tender skin, neither soft nor lazy by dint of nonchalance, but apt to drive the filth from the folds of the skin where it is lodged and to get rid of it. 

The effects of friction are interesting because it brings the humors from the muscles to the surface of the skin, and once [you have] removed the filth which, as it dried, had unfortunately absorbed the liquid humors which came out [of the horse as it sweated], it [the friction] brings back the humors and allows them to stay there [at the skin].

That done, it is necessary to wash the feet with a lot of water, using the least sandy water possible, because that would damage the hooves. 

Finally, it is necessary to attach the horses, in the stable, to a well-washed manger, cleaned of all manure, and rid of any unpleasant odor.

Finally, they prescribe keeping them away from conflicts and brawls with their co-inhabitants [i.e. other horses] by means of long poles. 

In the morning, you must have the same concern for cleanliness, that is to say, to get rid of the filth and clean the hoofs of manure that has accumulated during the night: in short, clean all the impurities that you find. 

And finally, it is advisable to lead the horse to learn his duty and accomplish his tasks. 

When he returns, he will be welcomed to the stable with the care for cleanliness that we have indicated. 

[During] the day, moreover, and especially during the summer, it is necessary to keep [the horse] on a hard ground, which is not strewn with any straw. 

For hungry and thirsty horses, but especially for those who are too hot, or else when they have cooled, it is necessary to offer, first and foremost, water that is not cold, nor recently fallen, nor thoroughly repugnant and spoiled, but thickened and evaporated in the sun, and lukewarm [i.e. room temperature, normal temperature]. 

And also, to make them take as much water as possible, it is necessary to encourage them to drink with salt: it contributes strongly to reinforce their limbs. 

They say indeed that the monsters with gigantic bodies only grow in the sea, because of the amount of salt found there.

Immediately after [working], one must offer each horse not more than three livres [3 US pound, or about 1.5 kilos] of perfectly pure barley, in a deep hole, so that, [in working for] for his own pleasure, he strengthens his forelegs and the muscles on his chest. 

On the other hand, for straw and fodder cut short and clean, they recommend to place it up high, after having shaken out the dust, and to leave it thus in the air, so that by stretching the head, the horse works his neck and become more flexible and finer at the top of the neck. 

That same evening, when he has drunk well, he must be given three livres of barley and a large quantity of hay. 

But we must absolutely ensure that it is neither fed to saturation nor fed in excess. When given his fodder, they ask that one is watchful that he is not inconvenienced and is not obliged, to reach for food placed too low or too high, to bend or to stretch his members to excess. 

For the rest, they all agree that it is very important to offer the horses a little less comfort each day, so that they harden themselves to bravely endure the cold, lack of sleep, hunger, heat, wind and dust. That's why we must also shoe as late as possible: if an incident makes it so they have to get about with bare hooves, these hooves will be used to it, because this ancient practice will have made them callous and hard.

It is also fitting to remember that horses, for the purposes for which we train them, are, so to speak, part of our family, so that it is absolutely shameful that our impatience, our negligence, our laziness, might cause them the slightest damage. 

And if we ask them [the ancients] what must come first [is most important] in their education, I will say that it is, in my opinion, that the horse is well exercised. 

Our ancestors in effect wanted their horses not to know days of rest. 

And second? We take care of the horse properly. Filth rots even statues made of hard material, like ivory or bronze. 

In the third place? Feed him well. Our ancestors decided that horses should have the place of servants: we must therefore provide them with what they need and command them to what they can reasonably accomplish. 

All this, they say, cannot be done in good conditions unless one puts the care that a father gives his  family. 

We read in Xenophon this old proverb: the look of the master fattens the horses [the eye of the master maketh the horse fat?]. 

It is therefore very useful to repeat again and again their advice: always be careful not to make them stubborn by the fault of asking too much and [using] too severe a punishment. Nothing makes them so stubborn, recalcitrant, and lazy as the furious authority of an excessive master.

I had decided to write something about caring for sick horses, but when I noticed that many ancient authors, and some of the best, like Absyrtus, Chiron, Pelagonius, Caton, Columella, Vegece, but also good and useful modern writers, like Palladius, the Calabrian, Albert, Rusio, Crescenzio, Abbas, and a few others, had dealt with it skilfully and elegantly, I decided that I did not have to waste my time on this business, especially that I understood that I could write or otherwise only the Ancients without losing my dignity, nor like them while avoiding being unfairly accused of plagiarism.

Allow me, however, to set forth here some particularly useful warnings concerning the care of horses, and that the Ancients themselves have not mentioned. Here they are.

Some points concerning the maladies of horses

If the horse, in fact, is not well, some signs can make us understand [what is wrong].

This will be the case when this horse does not behave according to his old habits, when he used his limbs normally to fulfill his duty. 

If, for example, he sleeps more, if he is less active, if he eats with too much voracity, if he drinks too greedily, if he refuses with disgust drink or food, if he urinates a little more or a little less, if his stomach is more relaxed or more constipated, if he remains inert, his neck inclined towards the ground, if he is uncomfortable [labored in?] his breathing, if, from his belly, he emits malodorous farts [yes really], if his ears are a little cold, if he is perspiring at rest, if he has bad breath, if he loses weight or swells. 

All these signs make us understand that the horse is not healthy. 

Above all, the signs that have appeared, examine them again and again, in their relation to each disease. 

Compare them most carefully with the possible causes and put all your intelligence to seek the origin of the evil, rather than its nature. 

And put all your efforts and your application to divert and dry up the source of the disease. 

The bad force draws it from one noble member to another less noble. 

Ensure that what has happened does not remain on the spot, that it does not rot that to which it adheres; remove what has rotted, to prevent it from spoiling what is healthy. [talking about proud flesh i think]

That which may have been too hard softens, that which burns hotly, that the lukewarm regains its heat, that what is softened regains its firmness, that which, layer upon layer, has grown to excess, decreases, that what has disappeared reappears: watch it!

As for you, do not hurry to give medicines but, as the horse struggles with its own strength against the disease, meanwhile [you should] provide him with all you can to help nature. 

And nature, if it has largely begun its work of healing, do not try to rush its work. 

But if, perhaps, it seems a little slow, do not try to assault the disease, as by violence, with a strong drug, but bring it gently to accomplish its task, that of restoring health. 

In all this, take heed, [though you may] want to do experiments, not to change treatment inconsiderately, from hour to hour. 

Choose, for this treatment, what seems most safe, but preferably use that of the most value, verified by experience. 

Everything on the path to the cure, keeps the rhythms, the ways and even the things which you are used to, during convalescence. 

This cure should be continued until you have the clear feeling that the root of the evil has been completely removed - it would be to consider the horse as sick for eternity but persevere in the treatment that you have undertaken until that time that you realize that having almost recovered all his strength, the animal does not go so badly.


[1] Alberti is surprised by the quality of the masterpiece, which is not common.

[2] Paraphrased: either a man must provide for his family by working the fields and collecting up materials to build dwellings, or collecting spoils from battlefields. In any case, he needs a horse.

[3] Apollo

[4] He seems to be contrasting the horse’s gentleness with his great heart and strength of spirit 

[5] Perhaps Alberti means “keeping pace to the music”

[6] These stories seem to be taken from Pliny’s book 8

Monday, February 22, 2021

Snowpocalypse 2021

As pretty much everyone in the world knows by now, last week's winter storm was rather rough on most of Texas.

I'm a rabid weather-watcher, so I knew 10 days out that we were going to be in for some very rough weather. I had hay and extra grain delivered, stocked up on pet food, and made sure our pantry and fridge was stocked (although since the start of the pandemic, I've never let anything get too low, so it wasn't a huge thing). 

The forecast as of Feb 12. It ended up being worse.

With the weather supposed to roll in the night of the 14th, we spent the 13th covering some of our young trees, refilling the water trough, and adding extra layers of wrapping to the pipes. We also harvested everything possible from the garden, and ended up digging up the citrus and olive trees we'd planted in the fall, since we were pretty sure they wouldn't survive the single-digit temps we were supposed to get. 

Plants relocated to the den

So much lettuce.

We spent a nice Valentine's day with some steaks and a bottle of wine, and went to bed feeling pretty prepared.

Everybody happy and blanketed.


Monday morning around 2am the power went out, and it stayed out until midnight Wednesday (almost 72 hours). We woke up to a house that was barely 40 degrees, along with frozen water pipes. There was nearly 6 inches of snow on the ground. 

We had actual snow drifts that were over a foot high.

I knew there was a reason I owned these really expensive Thinsulate Ariat winter boots. They saved my life.

This would have been way prettier if it hadn't been 10 degrees out.

The intersection near our house. Note that we have no snow plows, no way to salt or maintain the roads at all, so after this we just had a 2 inch sheet of ice for a few days. Folks with no water/electricity/heat had no way to go anywhere because it was too dangerous to travel.

Canada can keep their shit weather next time, K?

We were so, so lucky to have a gas stove and a wood-burning fireplace, plus almost a cord of wood stored. We were able to share the wood with two of our neighbors, and they shared water. It's really great to have neighbors looking out for each other.

Literally roasting our toes in the fireplace.

We moved our bed into the den, so we had one "warm room" in the house where we packed ourselves and all the animals. Sadly, our fireplace is not built for heat output, so it was only 48-50F a few feet from the fire. The rest of the house stayed barely above freezing, but our little cottage got below freezing and stayed there (spoiler alert: this did not work out well for the pipes).

Since our bed was on the floor, the "no dogs on the bed" rule was temporarily rescinded and a certain someone took full advantage.

We almost immediately switched to a "farmer's schedule," up and down with the sun. Turns out there's not a lot to do when there's not power, and staying up past dark meant burning candles or using valuable battery power. For much of the power outage, our phones weren't working because the towers were down. We could occasionally get texts in and out, but no data.

Funny story - at one point on Tuesday I tried to start the truck, since it has an onboard generator (and also heated seats). This is when we learned that nobody down here puts additives in the diesel in the winter, so the fuel had gelled. Internet Frondz (you know who you are) tried to help diagnose the problem, and one helpful suggestion was to light a fire under the truck. Pretty sure that voids the warranty though, so we didn't try it. It started up just fine Wednesday when it reached a balmy 31 degrees.

Like many others, we ended up scooping snow for the animals and collecting meltwater off the roof, because there was no other source of water. 


As of today, much of Austin is still under a boil water notice, but luckily it has been lifted from our part of town.

I'm so thankful for this gas stove, since we were able to have hot food and share it with the neighbors.

Pro tip: If you're going to make hot toddies during a snowpocalypse, use the 32 oz Yeti mug. This advertisement brought to you by a USB rechargeable clip-on reading light, which was SUPER useful to have.

At least someone thought this was fun.

Would have liked to borrow his coat pls.

All in all, the horses did fine. They kept eating and drinking, despite the frigid water (we had a tank heater, but with no power it was useless). We put a jollyball in the tank to keep the top layer from freezing, and that actually worked pretty well. They got to be out for part of the storm and seemed just fine, although I did discover that my 10+ y.o. blankets that faithfully get washed and waterproofed every year are no longer actually waterproof. We had to play musical blankets a little but everyone stayed toasty. Wednesday we had a little melting and then everything turned into a skating ring, so they stayed in after that. So other than going stir crazy, they're OK.

We put blankets around the chicken coop to keep the wind out, and took boiling water out to heat up the chicken's water because the entire bucket would freeze solid in a matter of hours. They mostly stayed in their coop for the duration, but were also fine.

We also played a fun game of "fridge/freezer are too warm and our food will spoil so let's put everything outside but not for too long or else the stuff from the fridge will freeze." The ice cream stayed outside for the duration.

We finally got power back after almost 72 hours (I'm sure by now everyone has heard about all the fun with ERCOT and the $10,000 power bills, so I won't go into that). Unfortunately, much of Austin had major water line bursts, so we didn't get water back until Friday, and then we got to play a fun game of "what's broken where." Despite having turned off the water and draining the pipes, we ended up replacing the kitchen sink, bathroom sink, and shower faucets in the cottage. We also replaced a cracked galvanized cold water line with PEX line, which was an extra adventure because there are no replacement parts to be had ANYWHERE. We're not great plumbers in the best of times, so jury-rigging replacement plumbing was even more fun. And no, we couldn't call a plumber because there were plenty of folks with problems WAY worse than us (burst lines in the attic) and the response time for plumbers was understandable weeks out. We also blew three spigots, since frost-free spigots are not a thing here. Luckily we were able to just cap those and will fix them later. The biggest loss was our tankless water heater, where the copper exchange cracked. We were EXTREMELY lucky to snag a replacement on Saturday - it'll hopefully arrive on Wednesday or Thursday and then we'll install it ourselves (see above lack of available plumbers). Until then, we're taking showers at my BFFs house.

Ripping off the back wall of the cottage to get at the broken line.

Today the snow has melted and all we have to show for last week's disaster is no hot water. And we are one of the lucky ones - we had some heat, we had a way to cook, we had food and water. Even so, it was exhausting and not an experience I hope to ever repeat. We are for sure going to make some changes around here to be more resilient, because the odds seem good that something like this will happen again.

For now, I'm just grateful that it's 80 degrees out and I'm not huddled literally in the fireplace to stay warm.

In summary, 0/10 do not recommend.

Thursday, January 21, 2021


He's less balanced to the left since he tends to fall on his left shoulder (and I need to use more left leg), but he's getting the idea.

Considering that a month ago he really didn't understand the mechanics of a half-pass, I'm really pleased with his progress. There's so much to work on, but the basics are there! 

Friday, November 20, 2020

Left leg vs right leg - picking apart the biomechanics

I know, I seem to be doing a bunch of biomechanics posts of late, but that's where my brain is at so that's where the blog is at.

Following up on my last post about keeping my legs close is understanding how my right and left leg are different, how that affects my riding, and what I need to do to make them more even. My left leg is the stronger leg, and tends to stay more under me and doesn't brace or swing.

Let's start with the obvious differences. In these pics, I'm not actively focused on doing anything different with my legs. Let's call this "normal": 

Perhaps the most obvious difference here is the angle behind my knee - the right leg is MUCH more open than the left. You can also see that my lower right leg has slipped forward and is bracing on the stirrup - especially obvious because the stirrup leather is pushed forward instead of being perpendicular to the ground. My left thigh is brushing against the block and is parallel to it, while my right thigh is nowhere near the block, and the angle of the front of my thigh and the block are quite different. We could also discuss my pelvis here, which definitely affects the leg, but let's just focus on the leg.

Next set: I'm actively focused on "keeping my legs close."

The angle behind my knee is more even between the right and left legs, but the right knee is still more open than the left and the lower leg is still a bit braced and forward., which you can also see in the stirrup leather still being a little in front of the vertical. There's still a big gap between the block and my thigh on the right leg, but there's no gap on my left thigh (I should note that I don't ride jammed against the block, it's more the feeling of the fabric of my breeches brushing the block). So, keeping my legs close has helped a bit, but my legs still aren't as even as they should be, and the bracing on the right leg is going to (and constantly does) cause problems.

Final set: I'm actively focused on pushing my right heel away from the horse, bending my right knee, and keeping contact between the fabric of my breeches and the thigh blocks:

The behind-the-knee angles are MUCH more even here, and the right stirrup is parallel to the ground. The right thigh isn't quite parallel to the block, but there is no longer a gap between my thigh and the block.

Buuuut, I'm struggling to keep that position. You can see that my right knee has dropped down and back as I'm using my lower right leg to keep his haunches in line for the left bend. Ah well, it's a work in progress!

The biggest difference I feel when my right knee has more bend in it is that I'm not as stiff in the hip, and no longer pushing my right seatbone out of the saddle. Keeping my right thigh on has the added benefit of making me more stable in the saddle, especially during transitions, which is when I like to brace the most.

Which of your legs is stronger? Do you notice an imbalance between your legs, and if so, in what ways, and how does it affect your riding?

Thursday, November 12, 2020

Keep your legs close

I tend to ride with my leg off the horse. From the hip all the way down.

This isn't to say I don't USE my leg and seat - I do, but I really have to make a fairly big movement to connect to the horse, especially since I'm pretty tall and I ride smallish horses. My leg has a long way to go to be able to influence the horse.

Legs are in correct position for SI, but outside leg is nowhere near the horse. Inside leg is probably not being effective either given that we should be doing SI but we're definitely not.

When I rode with Mary Wanless, it was immediately obvious that my thigh was completely off the horse, as I didn't use it to post and instead posted off my stirrups. Using my thigh - but without pinching with my knee - was a revelation, but also a hard habit to get into. To this day, I struggle with keeping my thigh on (it's especially hard to keep thigh on but hip open in sitting trot!), but my lower leg is even worse.

Enter the idea of "keeping your legs close." I don't need to keep them ON, because that will just cause confusion. But I need them to be more supportive, like a very light hug, so that when I DO need to cue, I can do so immediately instead of having a time gap between when I start the cue and when it actually reaches the horse.

No hug, Leo was easily able to pull me forward.

Turns out, having my legs actively (if quietly) engaged is also really helpful in keeping my seat on the horse. In downward transitions especially, or when Leo gets a little quick, I tend to brace my leg forward. This not only takes my legs forward and away from his sides, but because I'm bracing against the stirrups and literally pushing myself out of the saddle, it pops my seatbones off. In that moment, I have no way to influence the horse, either from my leg or seat. It also leaves me in a precarious position, as I am liable to have put myself behind the horse's motion, usually quickly followed by collapsing forward as the momentum catches up with me (stupid physics).

Leo fell out of the canter because my leg was forward and I was behind the motion - you can see how hollow my lower back is (another longtime struggle) and how I'm braced against the stirrups, and he's braced against me.

So, my job for the next while is to actively "keep my legs close" AT ALL TIMES when riding. This helps my balance (and therefore Leo's), AND it means I can support him more quickly when he needs a bit of help. It also magically fixed his tendency to fall out on his left shoulder when tracking right (who knew a little outside thigh could keep your horse straight??), rescue his haunches when he wants to travel with a hind leg out, and it means I can be quicker when I ask for small changes of bend, a titch more impulsion... all those things you actually need your legs for. WHO KNEW?

Still a lot to work on, but he was super balanced and light in this moment, and so was I. I want more of this!!!

Also, today is the third anniversary of the time Taran and I went to USDF Nationals. It's still the highlight of my riding career, and I will never forget the little grey pony who took me so far. May he rest in peace.

Victory lap in the Alltech <3

Tuesday, November 3, 2020

How a piece of bailing twine made my horse uphill (really!)

As a short-backed, short-necked drafty breed, Leo isn't exactly the most uphill creature on the planet. While he's not built downhill, he's also not a naturally uphill kind of guy. Plus, we've been working on stretching down and out and relaxing his underneck muscle, which sets him on his forehand. I also have an unfortunate habit of riding him a little (ok sometimes a lot) over-tempo, which also dumps him on his forehand.

Definitely over-tempo and on his forehand here - the RH is about to leave the ground but the LF is still solidly weight-bearing. Oops.

So, how to get your horse off the forehand 101? For me that has always been lots of transitions, and usually it works well. But while the result is overall pleasant, it's not enough to make the 2nd level movements consistently easy or get his shoulders mobile enough for the fancy stuff at 3rd. Plus, it doesn't take much for me to get tense and pull a bit, and for him to dump down and not be able to recover without a major reset (think halt-reinback).

This is pleasant but it's kind of blah.

There are these nagging problems, like our change of direction in trot tends to be rushed for a few steps because we lose balance. Or the first full stride in the canter transition is huge because we've lost balance. Or I let him get behind my leg and he loses balance. Etc etc etc.

Enter the lowly piece of bailing twine:

You too can have one of these super fancy training gadgets!

I swear you guys, this thing is MAGIC. I held it between my middle and index fingers with minimal tension around his neck, and right away I could feel his chest push down and out. Obviously I could see it too, since his poll drops, and I could feel it in my seat as well, but the feeling of the chest going down and out was really something new. All I needed to do was raise my hands up (straight up, not back) an inch or so, and that reminded him to lift his chest back up. It also helped me sit a bit deeper in the saddle in that moment, essentially half-halting with my seat, further encouraging his chest up and his pelvis under. All that without touching his face!  

The first day of the clinic, I used it quite a lot. The second day, Leo came out MUCH lighter in the front with very little help from the twine. My job was to rebalance him every.single.time he got a bit heavy in front - no more "oops" and don't fix it moments. I got much better and faster at helping him, and relied on the twine less and less. By the third day, he was a bit tired but he felt SO much more balanced - more engaged behind and up in front. Moving his shoulders around felt effortless, and I finally got my legs situated so I could control his hind end better (that's for another post though). 

Here are videos of trot and canter each day, for comparison:

Trot progression

Canter progression

Hopefully you can see (and hear) when he gets down in front and when he feels more balanced. I think he was best on the second day, but there is a lot to like about the third day as well.

I plan to continue to ride with the twine to help with feel and balance, although I will likely just start our rides holding it and then let it lay on his neck. It has really been a great teaching tool, allowing me to feel the "chest down" sensation in a whole new way. I need to be 100% committed to NOT allowing him to get his shoulders down, EVER. That also means that *I* cannot get my shoulders forward or look down, because it affects his balance so much. But the feeling when he is truly balanced and uphill is just so incredible and easy, I can't wait until that is our new normal!

More of this please!